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The Influence of Women’s Age on Fertility

By Dr. Jesús Félix Atondo

Do you know how your body evolves as you age and how does this affect your fertility? What is the best age to get pregnant? Today, our experts answer these questions by giving you an insight into a woman’s fertile life through 4 stages, which is determined by the start and end of her menstruation (12 to 45 years of age, approximately).


1st Stage: Adolescence (12 – 19)

The average girl will get her first period around 12 years old, but this varies from person to person. Menstruation means that a woman can get pregnant, however, this does not mean that she is physically, mentally, or emotionally ready to conceive. The reproductive system continues to develop during the teenage years, which can make periods irregular when it comes to length and flow.

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Woman’s fertile life


2nd Stage: Young Adulthood (20 – 30)

The second stage starts from 20 to 30 years of age, which is when women’s fertility is at its peak. This period in a person’s life presents many changes: some seek to keep developing professionally, others pursue educational goals and many decide to start a family. While for some having babies comes easy, a large portion of couples struggle to conceive, which is when assisted reproduction treatments – like In Vitro Fertilization – can be very helpful. For personal reasons, others may want to postpone parenthood but also keep a high chance of having a healthy pregnancy in the future – these cases can be candidates for sperm or egg freezing.


3rd Stage: Adulthood (31 – 40)

After age 31, a woman’s reproductive potential starts to decrease along with the quality and quantity of her eggs; this decline becomes more rapid once she reaches 35, however, this doesn’t mean she can’t conceive, in fact, the chances of being able to conceive are still high. The greatest reduction in fertility is in the late 30s and early 40s. The chances of getting pregnant are about half that of a woman in her 20s, but detecting infertility problems on time can help to significantly increase this opportunity.


Women's fertility peak

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4th Stage: Middle Age (41 – 45+)

In this period of life, having a baby can be difficult. The risk of chromosomal issues (birth defects), miscarriages, or abnormal pregnancies are high due to a variety of factors: not only does the woman’s egg production decreases significantly, but also health issues might have started to develop at this stage – like diabetes and high blood pressure – making having a baby complicated. In addition, 40s are the average ages when women go through menopause, which would represent the end of their fertile life. However, solutions like ovarian tissue freezing could be an option for those still wanting to be able to conceive.



A woman’s fertile life and her biological clock are crucial factors to take into consideration when wanting to create a family. Nowadays, many women wait until their 30s to begin their families, but even though they can be perfectly healthy, they can’t offset the natural age-related decline in fertility.

This is why at The Fertility Center we encourage you to take action as soon as you notice something might be going wrong when trying to conceive or to plan ahead if your goal is to be a parent later in life. Whatever your decision may be, we are here for you. Talk to one of our specialists to schedule an appointment today! Ask us about sperm freezing cost.

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Dr. Jesús Félix Atondo

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